New science on experimenting with different machine-learning methods trained on white-light coronagraph data sets (SOHO/LASCO) of close-to-Sun CMEs, to estimate whether such a newly erupting ejection has the potential to induce geomagnetic activity has been published in the Astrophysical Journal.
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most geoeffective space weather phenomena. They are associated with large geomagnetic storms, and have the potential to cause disturbances to telecommunications, satellite network disruptions, and power grid damage and failures.
The paper focuses on forecasting the geoeffectiveness of CMEs to exclusively use solar onset parameters, in order to ensure extended warning times. The model proposed correctly identified 80.28% of the geoeffective events, with a precision of 15.19%, based on fivefold cross-validation on the entire data set.
The paper can be read here. Contact diana.ionescu (at) astro.ro.
Published on Aug 06, 2022
În perioada 6-8 iulie 2022, la Observatorul Astronomic din Cluj-Napoca s-a desfășurat conferința internațională "Theory, Observations and Data Processing in Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space and Planetary Sciences".
Organizată de Observatorul Astronomic din Cluj-Napoca din cadrul Filialei Cluj-Napoca a Academiei Române și de Facultatea de Matematică și Informatică a Universității "Babes-Bolyai" din Cluj-Napoca, conferința s-a desfășurat sub auspiciile Zilelor Academice Clujene 2022, având susținerea Institutului Astronomic al Academiei Române și al Comitetului National Român de Astronomie.
La conferință au participat cercetători și cadre didactice din domeniul astronomiei, astrofizicii, științelor spațiale și planetare, matematicii și fizicii din România, Ungaria, Statele Unite, Emiratele Arabe Unite, Brazilia și Iran. La conferință au fost de asemenea prezenți studenți ai Universității "Babes-Bolyai" interesați de tematicile abordate.
Lucrările prezentate au abordat tematici legate de științele planetare și de fizica Soarelui, studii ale sistemelor complexe de stele binare, triple, multiple, și studii teoretice de cosmologie și teoria găurilor negre. Abordările tematicilor au fost diverse, de la observațiile astronomice directe, analiza și modelarea lor, la prelucrarea acestora utilizând tehnici moderne de analiză cu ajutorul inteligenței artificiale și a proceselor de învățare automată. Datele de observație prelucrate astfel sunt utilizate pentru elaborarea de modele, analitice sau empirice, care în final tind să explice fenomenele și problematicile care au fost puse în discuție.
Published on Jul 13, 2022
Pe 30 iunie 2022, între orele 10 a.m. - 18 p.m., Institutul Astronomic al Academiei Române (IAAR), organizează o nouă ediție a evenimentului cultural „Asteroid Day”, sub forma unei zile a porților deschise. Intrarea publicului în incinta parcului științific și educațional al IAAR din București, str. Cuțitul de Argint, nr.5, se va face prin înscrierea pe lista de acces, a fiecărei persoane care dorește să participe la acest eveniment. Pentru înscrieri, Institutul Astronomic pune la dispoziția persoanelor interesate nr. de tel. 021 335 68 92 și adresa de email firstname.lastname@example.org.
În cadrul evenimentului, publicul va beneficia de un circuit de vizitare, cu ghidaj de specialitate, a spațiilor de tip muzeal ale IAAR - Sala Meridian și Cupola Ecuatorială, și a principalelor arii de cercetare științifică - Cupola Soare și Clădirea Telescop.
În incinta acestor construcții, vor putea fi văzute unele dintre cele mai importante instrumente ale astronomiei românești din ultima sută de ani și mai bine - lunetele Prin-Merz și Gautier-Prin, ambele fiind clasate de Guvernul Românei ca Tezaur cultural al poporului român, alături de camera fotografică AFU-75, pendulele fundamentale Le Roy și Riefler, mașinile de calculat mecanice și electro-mecanice Mercedes și Rheinmetall, succedate apoi de cele electrice Elka și de primul calculator electronic românesc, Felix, și acesta prezent în expoziție.
În Sala Planetariu, astronomii profesioniști ai IAAR vor oferi publicului prezentări cu suport video despre aceste corpuri cerești misterioase ale Universului, asteroizii, în contextul activității românești de cercetare științifică din domeniul astronomiei.
Published on Jun 20, 2022
Tuesday, 31st of May 2022, H.E. Mr. Rahul Shrivastava, the Ambassador of India in Romania, Republic of Moldova and Albania visited the headquarters of the Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy in Bucharest. He was welcomed by our Director Dr. Mirel Bîrlan and by a multidisciplinary team of AIRA members, which also included Dr. Alin Nedelcu, Dr. Diana Ionescu, Dr. Mark Rushton and Sorin Marin. Having a focus on the scientific cooperation between Romania and India in the specific fields of astronomy, astrophysics and the related sciences, the discussions affirmed the mutual interest and potential for a dynamic bilateral scientific agenda, to be followed at a national and international level. The scientific cooperation of the Romanian astronomers with their Indian counterparts of Kolkata, was also remembered during the talks as one of the foundation blocks upon which to continue building the next level of scientific partnership between our two nations.
During the visit, H.E. Mr. Rahul Shrivastava had a guided tour in our 3 Ha. scientific and educational park in Bucharest, and was presented in brief its main buildings, instruments as well as our scientific history of almost two centuries in this particular place of Bucharest. Walking of the foot steps of the first monarch of modern Romania, prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza, who was present here on the same property back in the XIXth C., H.E. the Ambassador of India in Romania visited the Bosianu House. In this building, the details of the 1859 Union between Moldova and Wallachia were set, which led to the creation of the modern Romanian state, a long dreamed, visionary achievement of many generations of Romanians and the nucleus of the Great Union of Romania on the 1st of December 1918.
Published on Jun 06, 2022
A High-speed streams (HSSs) catalogue was issued for Solar Cycle 24 (SC24) by Besliu-Ionescu et al. (2022) and is available online at http://www.geodin.ro/varsiti/. Such a catalogue is extremely valuable as it help researchers understand the solar wind state close to the Earth from the point of view of the speed state at a given moment.
HSSs in the solar wind are an important physical driver of space weather. Along with other solar-driven phenomena, they may seriously impact various aspects of our increasingly sophisticated technological lives.
The HSS catalogue for SC24 considers only HSSs generated by coronal holes. These HSSs are recurrent, co-rotating streams with an apparent tendency to occur every 27 days. There are also non-recurrent HSSs produced by certain eruptive solar phenomena such as flares, coronal mass ejections, sudden disappearing filaments, or eruptive prominences.
The catalogue distinctively shows HSS basic properties, their sources, parameters of the interplanetary magnetic field, and various properties related to the associated geomagnetic storms.
The paper can be read here. Contact diana.ionescu (at) astro.ro.
Published on May 31, 2022
The Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy took part recently to several cultural events: Astrofest 2022 (7 May 2022), a public science & astronomy fair and outreach event organized every year in Bucharest; and the conference and exhibition „Space and Security for Eastern Europe. Romania - 10 years in the European Space Agency” (16-19 May 2022).
During both events, the Astronomical Institute was present with a colorful, dedicated exhibition stand and a specific cultural offer in terms of information about our scientific researches on a theoretical and practical level, including the instruments and technologies we use in these processes. The constant flow of people around our exhibition stand, gave us the chance of presenting to the public, through a series of large info panels with graphics and text, the cultural and patrimonial heritage of our 3 Ha. scientific and educational park in Bucharest. Countless questions were asked and answers were given, while several group visits of our headquarters were booked as well.
For the second event, as the exhibition format allowed us, we brought in our stand additional hardware and IT support such as the two touch screen Info Points, quite popular among our visitors, and an all-sky MOROI/FRIPON scientific camera connected through a dedicated PC to a laser projector, which offered to the visitors a live demonstration of the image and optics parameters that are used by this type of AIRA equipment.
The events gathered at our exhibition stand a wide public, from kindergarten children who looked with amazed eyes and exclamations to the spaceship and astronauts models we presented as educational accessories for their age group, up to Romania’s first and only man in space, our cosmonaut and Romanian Army general, Dr. Eng. Dumitru Prunariu.
Published on May 23, 2022
The Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, in partnership with Sun Plaza, Association “Astronomia 21” and Bucharest Astroclub, presents a new astronomy exhibition inside the commercial galleries of Sun Plaza in Bucharest. The event will be hosted in this location in between 15.04 - 27.05.2022, and aims to give the public an insight about the historical endeavor and the current research activities of the Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy (AIRA). In this respect, the emphasis of this cultural project falls on the rich patrimonial heritage of AIRA in Bucharest, represented by a large scientific and educational park that integrates several buildings and many specific instruments.
A messenger beyond words about the dynamic scientific evolution of Romania in the field of astronomy, the representative selections of our patrimony forms the core of this exposition hosted by Sun Plaza. For any visitor that is eager to learn more about the astronomical research done by Romanians and, generally, about astronomy as a “science of sciences”, seeing our new exhibition is a good place to continue this amazing journey.
Inside several display cases, some rare and valuable scientific instruments are exposed for the public, together with printed panels where the visitor can read and understand about their particular role in the Romanian astronomical research. Among these cultural items are a few ultra-precise clocks and recording devices, which were used as a reference in the continuous efforts of the Romanian research crews to calculate different types of scientific time, such as the sidereal time, solar time, including the calculation and nationwide reporting from Bucharest of the Legal Time of Romania. In the exhibition are also presented to the public several calculating machines, coming form the old mechanical ones to the electric machines that were used at AIRA up to the PC era.
As a close educational partner of AIRA, the Bucharest Astroclub, contributed to this exhibition by displaying some interesting meteorite fragments and a few telescopes used today by the amateur astronomers.
Published on Apr 28, 2022
Variable stars are cosmic sources of light that change their brightness in time due to various physical phenomena like atmospheric pulsations and/or geometrical configurations like eclipses.
The OmegaWhite (OW) is a wide-field high-cadence synoptic survey that is searching the Galactic Plane and Bulge for intriguing rare variable stars like the interacting ultra-compact binary systems (also known as AM CVn stars). These are pairs of white dwarf stars that exchange mass. The key point of the survey is that it was designed to explore a new space of parameters: namely to search for faint, low-amplitude stars that exhibit short sinusoidal modulations in their light curves, with periods shorter than 20 min. These are the rarest types of AM CVn stars and also the hardest to be detected by typical transient and spectroscopic surveys due to their observing properties (only 7 are known today).
OW started in 2011, and uses the OmegaCAM detector on the 2.5 m VLT Survey Telescope in Chile. A large number of intriguing variable stars was discovered and several have been followed-up. The most interesting examples like the progenitor of an AM CVn system, the second warm magnetic carbon white dwarf, etc. have been reported in several publications.
The latest study reports on the searching for variable stars with periods shorter than 1 hr in open clusters that happen to overlap the OW fields. Open Clusters (OCs) are gravitationally bound groups of tens to hundreds of stars that reside in the thin disk of our Milky Way. The novelty of this study is that no other open clusters survey has explored the faint stars in the space searched by the OW. The importance of this work is significant since a star that physically belongs to an OC has more known parameters (e.g. the same distance and age as the cluster) and can be used to test stellar physics theories. OCs population studies can also be used to trace the structure and evolution of our Galaxy.
A number of 92 variable stars were found into a set of 20 OCs. Several stellar catalogues were used, including the newest derived from data released by the Gaia mission, to assess if our stars are cluster members. Of these, only 12 have the highest probability to be members, 6 more have unknown status and the remaining are field stars. From spectroscopic follow-up data and studies of the Gaia colour-magnitude diagram, 12 members are low-amplitude delta Scuti pulsators - one of the most common class of variable stars, as expected. The shortest period star found is a 29.8 min delta Scuti with a chance of only 66 percent to belong to an OC. Most of the stars discovered are longer periodic variables. The Gaia Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (Fig. 1) indicates that the new found cluster members (shown as red star symbols) are located on the main-sequence and beyond; the latter are evolved pulsators. Among the field stars (pink dots), there could also be main-sequence high-amplitude delta Scutis and eclipsing binaries. As reference, all the field stars within 50 pc from the Sun (smaller dark dots) are shown. It is assumed that these closer field stars are not affected by reddening. The report concludes that the new results are in agreement with the literature: there is a relative small number of delta Scuti stars that are members of OCs.
More information: The most recent project was presented in a new published paper in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journal: The OmegaWhite Survey for Short Period Variable Stars VI. Open Clusters, by Toma et al. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stac802.
Published on Apr 07, 2022
The solar activity is increasing beyond the predictions for the solar cycle 25. Following a M4 class solar flare in the active region AR12975 occurred at 11:28 UTC, there was a radio burst type II and an Earth direction Coronal Mass Ejection (CME). The type II radio burst was detected and recorded by the CALLISTO radio spectrometer installed at AIRA Bucharest, a custom device for this kind of radio observations, developed by Christian Monstein (IRSOL, Switzerland).
Type II radio are characterized by a slow drift in frequency and two distinct bands of fundamental and harmonic frequencies of the hot plasma emissions. The electrons are accelerated by the shock-wave in front of a CME so these phenomena are strong correlated. In the picture, the blue to red contiguous zones represent the emissions and the other smaller lines and zones are Radio Frequencies Interference (RFI) caused by various terrestrial sources like computers, switching power supply, radio communications, static noise and so on.
A custom software was used to extract the relevant signal from the background noise, provided by Christian Monstein to all e-callisto network stations. More information on: http://www.e-callisto.org/. Contact: oblagoi (at) astro.ro
Published on Mar 29, 2022
As daylight time gets longer this period of the year, summer time in Europe will begin in Romania on Sunday, 27 March 2022, at 3 a.m. EET, when clocks will be set one hour ahead. This corresponds to the practice of Daylight Saving Time (DST) applied in the US, Canada, parts of Australia and to some other countries of the world. Today, only a minority of the world’s population uses DST, respectively a number of states located, in general, north or south of the tropics where daylight lasts shorter in the winter and longer in summer.
Regardless on how this is known as - Summer Time in Europe or Daylight Saving Time in other places of the world, this practice basically aims to save energy by the usage of more natural light in all human activities and less artificial light, which is energy consuming. As we still use to a significant extent fossil fuels to produce our energy, such a simple, conventional procedure like summer time observing leads to a significant cut in energy consumption and consequentially, of our carbon footprint on Earth.
Summer time in Europe is applied in most European countries, excepting Turkey, Iceland, Belarus and Russia.
This solution of making human activities more energy-effective was introduced in Germany in 1916, during the military and economic crisis of the First World War. However, for almost half a century afterwards, this practice was discontinued and then reintroduced at times in various places of the globe. The energy crisis of the late 1960s-1970s changed this dynamics ever since, and the European Summer Time is now used every year on most of our continent.
Published on Mar 24, 2022
The MOROI network recorded a multiple event on 2022-02-17 01:37:20 UTC. The meteor was detected by 3 stations (Mădârjac- ROIS01, Suceava- ROSV01, Bârlad-ROVS01). The image shows in red the luminous trajectory of the meteoroid. The final point of the luminous trajectory is depicted by the yellow circle. The three MOROI stations that detected the meteor are coloured in green. The fireball detections from each stations are represented on the image below.
The meteoroid, with an initial mass estimated to be around 500 kg, vanished completely during the ablation phenomenon. The luminous trajectory started at 88 km altitude and ended at 39 km, the body having a final speed of 24.39 km/s.
Although there are no remnant pieces of material because the object burned completely, based on dark flight segment simulation for a potential surviving fragment with a mass of 50 g under realistic atmospheric wind condition, we estimate that such a body would have landed in the Republic of Moldova. contact: ioana.boaca (at) astro.ro
Published on Feb 22, 2022
Meteoroids are fragments of asteroids which travel across the interplanetary medium. Although the Earth's atmosphere is bombarded by decimeter-size objects multiple times per day, a precise measurement of their size is poorly constrained. It is known that the larger they are, the lesser the chance of an impact with the Earth. However, their size is just too small to be observed by telescopes.
In a recent study, a more robust method of measuring fireballs was proposed. The semi-empirical relation is based on the entry mass of well known objects of ton-TNT scale impact energy, and their measured radiation. This relation takes as input the fireball radiated light along the atmospheric trajectory, to estimate the source energy of the meteoroid.
This photometric-based method is becoming be very accessible to use since the optical fireball networks are increasing both in number and size. Thus, a next step is to derive a more accurate size-frequency distribution of the meteoroids, and constrain the risk involved in expanding the space-based infrastructure.
The chart to the right shows energy calibrations of well known bolides around the ton-scale TNT. The error bar on the source energy represents the combined uncertainties from mass and velocity. The thin black line is the fit obtained by (Brown et al. 2002) corresponding to source energies greater than 0.1 kt TNT. This is continued with the dotted grey line onto this energy category. The red line is obtained as a best fit of the calibrated impact energy of bolides. The displayed objects have well studied trajectory data, and all except the small circles with black contour were the subject of successful meteorite recovery campaigns. The 100% luminous efficiency correspondence is represented by the thick line.
More information: This research was presented in a paper published in “Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society” (https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stab2968)
Published on Jan 25, 2022
Telescopul spațial James Webb este un proiect al Agenției Spațiale a Statelor Unite ale Americii (NASA) al cărui cost de fabricație si lansare s-a apropiat de suma de 10 miliarde de dolari. Telescopul va scruta Universul în domeniul lungimilor de undă din infrarosu apropiat si mediu (0,6-26 microni). El are un diametru de 6,5 metri.
Lansarea lui s-a facut pe 25 decembrie la ora 14h20 timp legal român, de la baza de lansare din Guyana franceză, cu ajutorul rachetei europene Ariane 5. In proiectul James Webb a fost implicată si Agenția Spațială Europeană (ESA). Agenția Spațială Română (RoSA) este membru al ESA.
În seara de 25 decembrie 2021, la numai 6 ore după lansare, Telescopul Spațial James Webb a fost observat de la Institutul Astronomic al Academiei Române. În momentul observațiilor telescopul să afla la 95.000 de kilometri de Pământ.
Observațiile au fost făcute cu un telescop de 0.5 metri în diametru al Institutului Astronomic al Academiei Române, situat în București. Animația ce însoțeste acest text prezintă telescopul James Webb în drumul său către punctul Lagrange L2 al Terrei. In imagine se vede si treapta a doua a rachetei cu care s-a lansat telescopul.
Published on Dec 26, 2021
On Sunday, October 31, 2021, clocks in Romania will be turned back by 1 hour and we will return to the standard hour which is considered the Winter hour. Thus, 4 am will become 3 am, Romanian Local Time. This way the difference between the local time of Romania, Winter time (EET) and the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) will be of two hours. After the Autumnal Equinox, the daylight length decreases while the night length increases. Therefore, the time system of turning the clocks back in the Autumn and ahead in the Spring, was implemented in Europe during the last century for the people to use the natural light as much as possible in their daily activities and thus, save energy.
Published on Oct 30, 2021
The Director of the Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy (AIRA), Dr. Mirel Bîrlan is part of the international team that used the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope (ESO’s VLT) in Chile, and imaged the largest objects in the asteroid belt, located between Mars and Jupiter.
Never before had such a large group of 42 asteroids been imaged so sharply. The observations reveal a wide range of peculiar shapes, from spherical to dog-bone, and are helping astronomers trace the origins of the asteroids in our Solar System.
The detailed images of these 42 objects are a leap forward in exploring asteroids, made possible thanks to ground-based telescopes, and contribute to answering the ultimate question of life, the Universe, and everything .
“Only three large main belt asteroids, Ceres, Vesta and Lutetia, have been imaged with a high level of detail so far, as they were visited by the space missions Dawn and Rosetta of NASA and the European Space Agency, respectively,” explains Pierre Vernazza, from the Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille in France, who led the asteroid study published today in Astronomy & Astrophysics.
The previously small number of detailed observations of asteroids meant that, until now, key characteristics such as their 3D shape or density had remained largely unknown.
”Between 2017 and 2019, Pierre Vernazza successfully and efficiently led an international team of which I was part and which aimed to fill this gap by conducting a thorough survey of the major bodies in the asteroid belt”, said Dr. Mirel Bîrlan, the Director of the Astronomical Institute of The Romanian Academy (AIRA).
Most of the 42 objects in their sample are larger than 100 km in size; in particular, the team imaged nearly all of the belt asteroids larger than 200 kilometres, 20 out of 23. The two biggest objects the team probed were Ceres and Vesta, which are around 940 and 520 kilometres in diameter, whereas the two smallest asteroids are Urania and Ausonia, each only about 90 kilometres.
By reconstructing the objects’ shapes, the team realised that the observed asteroids are mainly divided into two families. Some are almost perfectly spherical, such as Hygiea and Ceres, while others have a more peculiar, “elongated” shape, their undisputed queen being the asteroid Kleopatra.
By combining the asteroids’ shapes with information on their masses, the team found that the densities change significantly across the sample. The four least dense asteroids studied, including Lamberta and Sylvia, have densities of about 1.3 grams per cubic centimetre, approximately the density of coal. The highest, Psyche and Kalliope, have densities of 3.9 and 4.4 grammes per cubic centimetre, respectively, which is higher than the density of diamond (3.5 grammes per cubic centimetre).
This large difference in density suggests the asteroids’ composition varies significantly, supporting the theory that the celestial objects were formed in different areas of the Solar System and migrated to their current location.
These findings were made possible thanks to the sensitivity of the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE) instrument mounted on ESO’s VLT.
Astronomers will be able to image even more asteroids in fine detail with ESO’s upcoming Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), currently under construction in Chile and set to start operations later this decade.
”The study of asteroids is a field where Romanian researchers contribute constantly and significantly. As an associate astronomer of the Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy and astronomer of the Paris Observatory, I encouraged and facilitated collaborations between researchers from Romania and France. We have two Romanian doctoral students and researchers with the title of doctor who study small bodies - comets, asteroids, meteoroids - in the Solar System, "said Mirel Bîrlan.
Among the recent results of Romanian researchers are observations of the potentially dangerous asteroid (99942) Apophis, made at the Astronomical Observatory in Cluj-Napoca, Feleacu station, observations of the asteroid Pallas, observations of the asteroid (6478) Gault.
"The Institute's strategy will continue to support research efforts in these directions. Our projects include studies of asteroids approaching dangerously close to Earth, the relationships between asteroids, comets and meteors, the interaction of interplanetary matter with Earth, studies of the dynamics of natural and artificial objects near Earth, "said AIRA Director Mirel Bîrlan.
 In The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams, the number 42 is the answer to the "Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything." Today, 12 October 2021, is the 42nd anniversary of the publication of the book.
This research was presented in a paper to appear in Astronomy & Astrophysics
Original Press release colud be find at the address: http://rosa.ro/index.php/en/news-menu/stiri/5704-meet-some-of-the-42-biggest-asteroids-in-our-solar-system
Published on Oct 13, 2021
By definition, the moment of autumn equinox in the Northern Hemisphere corresponds to the precise time when the apparent geocentric longitude of the Sun is equal to 180 degrees. But, a more common understanding of this phenomenon in our society is that it happens on a certain day of September when daytime equals the duration of nighttime. In 2021, the autumn equinox will arrive on Wednesday, 22nd of September, at 19 hours 21 minutes and 06.77 seconds UTC, respectively at 22 hours 21 minutes and 06.77 seconds (UTC+3h) which is the Current Local Time in Romania, as we use the Eastern European Summer Time (EEST). At the moment of the autumn equinox, in 2021, the geocentric latitude of the Sun equals -0.56″, the right ascension has a value of 11 hours 59 minutes and 59.985 seconds, while his declination is -0.52″. As we can see by looking at the values of geocentric latitude and right ascension, they are close to 0 and respectively to 12 hours. This is the reason why we use to say about the Sun during this moment of the autumn equinox that it is in a direction opposite to that of the vernal point. Scientifically, this statement is considered partially true and it can be generally accepted as the apparent diameter of the Sun is about 30 arcminutes. The autumn equinox in the Northern Hemisphere of the Earth corresponds to the spring equinox in the Southern Hemisphere. The calendar used nowadays in Romania is the Gregorian calendar. This time instrument was created in 1582 in order to adjust the calendar drift with respect to the succession of the seasons. Therefore, according to the Gregorian calendar, the dates of the autumn equinox will always be during 21-24 September. Actually, in most years, the autumn equinox will arrive on the 22nd or 23rd of September while the dates when this will occur on the 21st or on the 24th of September are less frequent. For example, in the year 2092, the autumn equinox will occur on the 21st of September for the first time since the creation of the Gregorian calendar. Similarly, in 1803 the autumn equinox took place on the 24th of September, for the first time since the creation of the Gregorian calendar. Image in full resolution is available here.
Published on Sep 20, 2021
A chromospheric solar image with the active region AR12860, made at Bucharest Solar Observatory on 01.01.2021. This region has the greatest activity at the beginning of the 25th solar cycle, with an M4.7 class and several C1-C9 class eruptions. Instrumentation used: Zeiss refractor 110mm F/15, Halpha Baader Solar Spectrum 0.3A, 0.4X reducer, camera ASI290MM mono. Processed in AutoStakkert 3 and gimp. In this image different features of the solar activity in the chromosphere region can be seen: sun dark spots, plages (bright regions of very hot plasma), flares, filaments of cold plasma, fibriles, prominences, and spicules at the limb. Author: scientific researcher Octavian Blagoi. Annotated colorized image in full resolution available here.
Published on Sep 03, 2021
Members of „Nicolae Bălcescu” Youth Cultural Center and a group of 18 students from several Bucharest high schools were welcomed today at the Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy. Their visit was joined by the B1 TV crew which made interviews and a news report. During the event, the AIRA team was represented by our Director, Dr. Mirel Bîrlan, and by historian Sorin Marin. The astronomy promoter Daniel Berteșteanu from Bucharest Astroclub, was also invited and took part in the event.
The participants had the chance to attend several science presentations as they observed the Sun through a refractory telescope using an H-alpha filter, astronomy lessons in the Planetarium Hall and didactic laboratory demonstrations with projector support and various specialized hardware and software.
All these were followed by a relaxing guided tour which included: the Ecuatorial Dome - where it is preserved the largest refractory telescope in Romania, the marvels of Meridian Hall, Bosianu House, Sun Dome, and Telescope Building. While walking towards Bosianu House, a neo-gothic architectural jewell, the students learned they were walking on the footsteps of Prince Alexander John Cuza, who was present in the same house before the 1859 Union, and who later became the first monarch of modern Romania. They have also been told about Constantin Bosianu, Doctor in Law at Sorbonne University in Paris and the owner of the house and its surrounding property for a few decades in the XIXthC., who dreamed with his mind, believed with his heart, and worked day after day for the unification of the Romanian Principalities Moldova and Walachia and the creation of modern Romania.
Published on Aug 11, 2021
Asteroidul (248370) 2005 QN173 aflat în centura principală, cu o perioadă de revoluție de 5,37 ani, are un aspect comentar. Coada a apărut în jurul datei de 7 iulie 2021, fiind descoperită pe imaginile sistemului automat ATLAS. Coada se datorează unei ciocniri sau dezintegrarii din cauza rotației prea rapide. În urma acestui eveniment, asteroidul este observat periodic de la Observatorul Astronomic de la Berthelot al Institutului Astronomic al Academiei Române. Prezentăm o imagine din data de 8 august, în care se vede scurta coadă a asteroidului (credit A. Sonka).
Published on Aug 10, 2021
The Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy (AIRA) took part on July 23-24, AstroFest 2021 event, organized by the Știință & Tehnică team and the SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Association in Crângași Park. The purpose of this event was to popularize astronomy and space sciences, through presentations accessible to the general public (experiments, demonstrations, games, etc). The Astronomical Institute participated with astronomical instruments, informative posters and other materials designed to increase the attendants interest in science. The relatively good weather allowed for astronomical observations on various objects such as the Sun, Moon, Planets and Stars. During the event, the AIRA team also engaged with the public on the topic of science instrumentation, on Q&A sessions on the stage, and provided details about the Institute's main scientific activities. (AIRA Team: Octavian Blagoi, Simon Anghel, Ruxandra Toma, Ioana Boaca)
Published on Aug 03, 2021
An annular eclipse was visible from the northern hemisphere on Jun 10, 2021. The annular eclipse happens when the Moon covers the center of the Sun leaving a small edge uncovered.
In Romania, it was visible as a partial eclipse (0.1% to 2.2%) with maximum coverage in the north-western part of the country.
The Cluj-Napoca Astronomical Observatory observed this eclipse with a maximum coverage of 0.8% starting at 13:27 and ending at 14:27.
The image shows the maximum of the eclipse as seen from Cluj (46° 45' 29.45" North and 23° 35' 17.43" East) at 13:57. The image was obtained with a Coronado SolarMax Telescope (D=60mm, F=400mm) using an Hα filter.
Sun's activity is currently increasing. There were two active regions on the Sun. In this image there is a beautiful prominence visible on the eastern limb.
Published on Jun 10, 2021
Our colleague dr. Cristina Popescu has written a chapter in a book called Star Formation Rates in Galaxies, published by Cambridge University Press. The topic dr. Cristina Popescu describes was firstly introduced by her in the field.
This book is is aimed at postgraduate students, young researchers and astrophysicists. Each chapter describes the state-of-the-art methods used to measure the intensity of recent or on-going star forming activity in galaxies and has been written by world-leading experts in the field.
"When I first received the invitation to write one of the book’s chapters, on the very topic that I first introduced to the field and then developed during my career, I was really thrilled." — UCLan's Professor of Astrophysics Cristina Popescu
Professor Popescu is President of the International Astronomical Union's Commission J1. She specialises in the investigation, formation and evolution of galaxies by studying the detailed physical processes that take place in these complex systems, related to the interaction of radiation with dust, gas and cosmic rays.
More details can be read at: UCLAN News Section
Contact: cpopescu (at) astro.ro
Published on May 28, 2021
The Section of Mathematical Sciences of the Romanian Academy announces an Open Position for the Director of the Astronomical Institute. Visit the Romanian Academy web page for more details.
Published on Mar 15, 2021
The Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (99942) Apophis was observed during the interval: 18:09:36 – 23:46:14 UTC 03/04.03.2021 at the Astronomical Observatory Cluj-Napoca, Feleacu Station. The asteroid was as a distance of only 0.1187 AU, just 2 days before the close approach to Earth due 2021.03.06. This is the last favorable opportunity for observing Apophis before its closest approach of 2029.04.13.9 at a distance of just 0.0002541 AU. An impact with Earth on 2029 is completely excluded.
The telescope used was a PlaneWave Instruments CDK 24” (D=610 mm, F/D=6.5), currently the largest Romanian telescope. The detector was a SBIG STL 6303 CCD camera (3072x2048 pixels, 9x9 micron/pixel) using VRI Johnson-Cousins filters. The exposure time for each filter was 25 sec. The movie stretches 10 R filter exposures per second (resulting in a 17 second movie for more than 5.5 hours of observations).
Astrometric and photometric data on (99942) Apophis is recorded during this close approach from Feleac and Berthelot Observatories on every clear night.
Contact: vladturcu (at) academia-cj.ro, sonka (at) astro.ro
Published on Mar 05, 2021
A spectacular fireball was detected by the Meteorite Orbits Reconstruction by Optical Imaging network (MOROI) in the morning of 3rd of March, 2021, at 05:58 local time (03:58:39 UT). The bolide flared over Suceava county for 5 seconds, reaching a maximum stellar magnitude of -11 (+/- 1). The meteor brightness matched that of the Moon, which was 85% illuminated at the time.
As seen from the city of Suceava, the object traveled from West towards East, displaying fragmentation features in the second half of the atmospheric path. Four other stations in Romania have detected the bolide. From Bacău and Bârlad, the frames during the maximum brightness were saturated, while data from Baia Mare station (250km away) allowed a proper measurement of luminosity, due to the higher extinction close to the horizon. Investigations for trajectory and orbit reconstruction are underway.
Currently, MOROI network is in the process of integration with the international FRIPON network (Fireball Recovery and InterPlanetary Observation Network). The end goal is to fill the gaps between asteroid and meteorite science, by studying the meteoroid interactions with atmosphere, and computing the location where the surviving fragments might land.contact: simon.anghel (at) astro.ro
Published on Mar 04, 2021
The first active region of the solar cycle 25 was observed on December 20, 2016. The minimum activity period between solar cycle 24 and the current cycle was approximately double compared to other similar periods.
After almost 4 years, solar cycle 25 is picking up pace!
The active region NOAA 12776 became visible on October 15 and passed the western solar limb on October 27. In the right-hand side image this region is observed by the Bucharest Observatory on October 21 when it was situated at 14° southern latitude and 45° western longitude. On October 24, a B2.3 class flare initiated from this region was recorded by GOES.
Between October 27 and November 2 another active region (NOAA 12778) was visible on the Sun and generated several C-class flares.
The solar activity as seen in the sunspot number, the number and intensity of flares, as well as other eruptive phenomena, will constantly increase over the next few years.
Today we can see two active regions on the Sun and the sunspot number is 21.
Published on Nov 05, 2020
Berthelot Observatory Survey recently reported the detection of an unusual tail of comet 246P/NEAT. The discovery, submitted to Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, was published as CBET 4799. The CBET is available bellow:
Further to CBET 4793, A. Sonka, M. Birlan, and A. Nedelcu, Berthelot Observatory, Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, report on the unusual shape and tail of comet 246P from CCD observations obtained with a 0.38 m f/8 reflector (39'.8 x 28' field-of-view) at Berthelot Observatory on May 12, 21, and 23. A 60-s unfiltered exposure taken on May 23 shows an obvious 3' fanlike tail in p.a. 292.8 degrees, while 46 stacked images having a total exposure time of 0.8 hr shows a long tail visible at p.a. 296.8 degrees; the tail is at least 28' long and shows a 5'.4-long discontinuity, starting at 3' from the comet's coma (after the discontinuity ends, the tail continues and possibly extends outside the field-of-view. The comet's tail is also visible in images taken on May 12 and 21 at p.a. 296.8 degrees. The discontinuity is 5' long on May 12 and 8' long on May 21. Additional unfiltered CCD total-magnitude and coma-diameter measurements for comet 246P: Mar. 20.27 UT, 15.0, 40" (H. Sato, Tokyo, Japan, 0.25-m astrograph near Mayhill, NM, USA; fan-like tail 1'.5 long toward p.a. 250-290 degrees); May 29.44, 14.6, -- (K. Kadota, Ageo, Japan, 0.25-m reflector). Visual total-magnitude and coma-diameter estimates by P. Camilleri, Katherine, NT, Australia (0.40-m reflector): June 9.47, 13.8, 1'; June 14.45, 14.0, 1'.contact: sonka (at) astro.ro
Published on Jun 19, 2020
Published on Apr 21, 2020
The Astronomical Institute and the Astronomia 21 organisation are contributing to #StayAtHome Covid19-related state.
In the frame of “Școala altfel” – “A different type of learning”, on March 31, 2020, Diana Beșliu-Ionescu has presented “The Sun and its consequences on life” to a class of fourth grade students from ”Grigorie Ghica Voievod” Gymnasium School. Using Google Meet, available on the G Suite for education, students were able to follow our researcher’s presentation.
They have learned about the Sun’s position relative to our Galaxy, its evolution and structure. The students were most impressed by the scaled difference between Sun and Earth sizes represented using a 60 cm diameter yoga ball and a very small metal marble. Students also watched high-resolution animation provided by DOT showing photospheric activity around an active region. The presentation described what is a solar cycle, which eruptive events may influence the Earth and produce geomagnetic storms. At the end students were told that their phones can show the space weather status using NASA/ESA’s Apps.
Published on Apr 13, 2020
Dr. Mirel Birlan, researcher at Paris Observatory and the Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy is part of a team of researchers that has looked up-close at the Pallas asteroid, the third largest object in the asteroid belt, to better understand its unusual tilted orbit. The team discovered that the surface of the asteroid is so cratered, that researchers dubbed it “the golf ball asteroid”. The research team believes that the craters are a consequence of a violent period of collision during its history and that this could also explain the unusual inclination of its orbit that has puzzled scientists for centuries.
The Pallas asteroid is almost one-seventh the size of the Moon. For centuries, astronomers have noticed that the asteroid orbits along a significantly tilted track compared with the majority of objects in the asteroid belt. This inclination remained a mystery for a long time. Now a European team, led by principal investigator Pierre Vernazza from the Laboratoire d'Astrophyisque de Marseille in France, and including Dr. Mirel Birlan, obtained images of Pallas using ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), an array of four telescopes, each with an 8-meter-wide mirror, situated in the mountains of Chile.
The high resolution images show a very cratered surface of the asteroid. In addition, the researchers created a reconstructed 3D model of the shape of the asteroid, revealing a heavily cratered object on the poles, but also at the equatorial regions. The researchers identified 36 craters larger than 30 kilometres in diameter, covering more than 10% of its surface — proof that Pallas experienced a violent period of collision during its history, two to three times more intense than the one of other large asteroids like Ceres or Vesta. The heavily cratered surface explains also the preservation of its initial shape after the formation. This collisional period could also explain Pallas’ tilted orbit.
The images of the asteroid have also revealed a bright spot on the surface of Pallas. The most probable explanation of this finding and its origin is that Pallas has large deposits of salts at its surface, most probably formed by a mixture of water and silicates. The investigations carried out by the European team have also led to the discovery of the Pallas family of asteroids, a cluster of small asteroids. Simulations of impacts with Pallas suggest that this family could be the result of a violent collision about 1.7 billion years ago by an object having a diameter between 20 km and 40 km. Asteroid 3200 Phaeton, identified as the source of the Geminids meteor shower, which is observed on Earth in December, is part of the Pallas family, and could provide clues to understanding the origin of the parent body, Pallas. Thus, observing meteors and collecting meteorites coming from Phaeton could partly solve the history of Pallas.
The findings were published in Nature Astronomy https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-019-1007-5.
Published on Feb 20, 2020
Published on Feb 14, 2020
Jean Dragesco was born on the 27th of April 1920 at Cluj. When he was only 15 years old, he was already observing the Moon through a self-made 2″ telescope. Around the same age, he read an outstanding number of astronomy books written in French and this informational pathway made him acquire new scientific knowledge, the building blocks of his future and dedicated life for science.
At 17 years old, he built another telescope, a 4″ Newtonian, which had a mirror made in Stuttgart, Germany He built another mirror, still spherical, but 6″, and finished a good Altazimuthal Newtonian telescope. At 19 years old, he became "officially" a contributor to "Mars" section of Société Astronomique de France. In the same year, Jean Dragesco founded the first organization for the young astronomers in Romania called the Astronomical Society for Young Astronomers and he became the editor of the monthly publication Urania. The next year, he founded the Microscopy Association and started to publish the Micron journal.
Jean Dragesco left Romania for France when he was 21 years old. His father, Ion Dragu, was a philosopher, writer and diplomat; he worked for the Romanian Embassy in Paris as the Head of Press Office, during that time, Eugène Ionesco was Press and Cultural Secretary within the institution. Once in France, an excellent 3″ telescope came to being out of his own hands. After he became a member of Société Astronomique de France and an active observer of "Mars" section there, he got the permission to do observations withe the 6″ and 7.5″ (152 and 190 mm) telescopes at Paris Observatory. It is also the moment when he started to collaborate with several very knowledgeable and dedicated astronomers who latter on became professionals in the field.
At 22 years old, he discovered a gap between the rings B and C of planet Saturn. However, even if the same discovery was made a few weeks later by the distinguished French astronomer Bernard Lyot, the same who invented the coronagraph, the new discovery was attributed to him and not to Dragesco and it is today known as the ''Lyot division".
Published on Jan 26, 2020
Berthelot Observatory is a remote observing station of the Astronomical Institute. Built on General Berthelot village, Hunedoara, on a protected area belonging to the Romanian Academy, the observatory is operated in remote mode from Bucharest. Following the first light in mid-November 2018, the observatory is currently involved in near-Earth objects photometric surveys and tracking and surveillance activities in the framework of EU-SST programme of the European Commission.
The telescope is a RC 14.5'' F/7 Optical Guidance System on a fast, 8°/s, equatorial mount able to track objects on medium Earth orbits. The field of view, using an SBIG STL11000M CCD camera, is of 44'x30'.
Berthelot Observatory successfully concluded the first common European exercise of space surveillance and tracking taking place from 15 to 24 July 2019. Astrometry data for the four assigned targets was provided daily in TDM format.
On December 6th, Berthelot Observatory received the code L54 from the International Astronomical Union's Minor Planet Center (MPC).
Published on Dec 06, 2019
The Institute was recently involved in two new ESA-funded research and development projects. Cheia Antenna Retrofit Phase II is a project led by RARTEL Telespazio, a Leonardo and Thales company, aiming to include the 32 meters antennas presently available at the Cheia Satellite Ground Station, in the context of European SSA programme. The Institute will assist RARTEL in all the project phases (design, software development, integration and testing) for all the aspects related to the tracking services which shall be supplied through the newly developed radar infrastructure.
SYNOPTES project, led by Romanian InSpace Engineeering startup and having both Cluj and Bucharest observatories as partners, is developing a GNSS-based real-time clock (RTC) system for the temporal synchronization of SST ground based observations. Berthelot and Feleacu astronomical stations are the testing beds and on-sky validation infrastructures of the technical solution. Contact: nedelcu (at) astro.ro)
Published on Nov 19, 2019
Bucharest Science Festival opened the gates of the Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy for the general public, on the 27th of September 2019. The number of visitors exceeded any estimations being around 500 adults and children.
The Planetarium Hall was permanently full of people eager to learn who participated to several presentations with PowerPoint, video or specialized software support. The academic staff and astronomy teachers were: dr. Diana Beşliu-Ionescu (AIRA), Daniel Berteşteanu (Bucharest Astroclub), Florin Zăinescu (University of Bucharest).
A special moment of the evening was the live connection with France, as dr. Mirel Bîrlan (AIRA) interacted with the public through Skype directly from Paris Astronomical Observatory.
The activities included guided tours in the museum halls of the Institute - the Meridian Hall and the Equatorial Dome. There, some of the most important and spectacular astronomical instruments of Romania are preserved for future generations and they are used today for educational purposes.The tour guides - Sorin Marin (AIRA), Octavian Blagoi (AIRA) and Marian Naiman (Bucharest Astroclub) received many questions during the whole event, especially coming from the younger friends of astronomy and they answered to all of them.
The members of Bucharest Astroclub took part in organizing the BSF 2019 event. They displayed with great openness their instruments - several telescopes and their accessories and kindly instructed the public on how to watch the planets and the stars through them.
Published on Oct 04, 2019
Using Berthelot Observatory in remote mode we imaged the first interstellar comet - C/2019 Q4 (Borisov) . Based on the current arc, the comet is on a hyperbolic orbit with an eccentricity of almost 3. The comet will reach perihelion on December 7, 2019. Berthelot Observatory will continue to monitor this objects in the following weeks. Contact: sonka (at) astro.ro.
Published on Sep 14, 2019
Romanian Astronomical Journal is an international journal covering the fields of:
Published on Aug 04, 2019
Asteroid (6478) Gault is a mysterious object; although it is in the Main Belt of asteroids, this object presents a cometary activity. During 2018 and 2019 astronomers detected a tail of matter in the asteroid's motion around the Sun, most likely due to the sublimation of light elements in its composition. The phenomenon involves the particles of dust and gas that reflect sunlight.
An international team that includes researchers from MIT-US, Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, Observatoire de Paris-France, Lowell Observatory, Institute for Astronomy in Hawaii, and Northern Arizona University, has monitored the asteroid and obtained spectral and photometric data of Gault, between March and April 2019. Near-infrared spectral observations were performed in late March and early April 2019 with the 3 m diameter IRTF (NASA) telescope located in Mauna Kea-Hawaii; the spectral data were corroborated with the photometric data (Figure 1) obtained with the NEEMO-T05 telescope operated by the Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy.
Observational data confirm that the surface of the object contains minerals rich in silicium, most likely similar to the mineralogical composition of the asteroid family (25) Phocaea. The spectral data show variations of the spectral slope, decorrelated by a possible burst in object's cometary activity. This aspect can be explained by observing a new layer, unaltered by space weather, predominantly present on the surface of the object after the initial dust layer was entrained in the tail developed by the asteroid.
These results were recently published in the prestigious Astrophysical Journal Letters.M. Marsset, F. DeMeo, A. Sonka, et al., "Active asteroid (6478) Gault: a blue Q-type surface below the dust?” accepted in Astrophysical Journal Letters. Contacts: Adrian Sonka, Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, Mirel Birlan, Paris Observatory.
Published on Aug 04, 2019
The Sun is the main driver of space weather. Space weather is determining the state of the Earth magnetosphere, which, in its turn, triggers geomagnetic storms.
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are pieces of the puzzle that drive space weather. They are one of the most important pieces, because of their large quantities of magnetised plasma released into the heliosphere. An Earth directed CME can hit the magnetosphere about 2-4 days after its initial detection, but not all CMEs arriving to Earth will produce a geomagnetic storm.
Numerous methods (theoretical, numerical and empirical) are being used to predict whether the CME will be geoeffective or not. In a recent paper, a team of researchers lead by D. Beșliu-Ionescu have proposed a new logistic regression model that will produce a probability, expressed as a number between 0 and 1, that a CME will be an event associated with a geomagnetic storm (Beșliu-Ionescu et al., 2019).
Published on Aug 03, 2019
Thursday, December 13, 2018, the Romanian Academy has presented the 2016 Awards. Dr. Magda Stavinschi has been granted the "Petre SERGESCU" Award for her books "Nicolae Coculescu, A Life Among Stars" and "The Astronomy and the Romanian Academy".
A novelty in the award presenting by the Romanian Academy is the initiation of the "Petre Sergescu" Award, intended for rewarding the best history of science and technology papers, award that will be given following consultations and votes from all science departments of the Romanian Academy.
The award was established 125 years after the birth of the great science historian, both for showing the importance that sciences have in the contemporary society development, and for honoring the memory of the prominent scholars with outstanding contributions, starting from the precept expressed by Auguste Comte, saying that "to understand science, it is to know its history".
Published on Dec 16, 2018